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The Leiden I Maccabees manuscript / Codex Per F 17
The Battle at Beth-zechariah
A large image of the Battle at Beth-zechariah. The Leiden I Maccabees manuscript.
The Battle at Beth-zechariah
32 Then Judas marched away from the citadel and encamped at Beth-zechariah, opposite the camp of the king.
33 Early in the morning the king set out and took his army by a forced march along the road to Beth-zechariah, and his troops made ready for battle and sounded their trumpets.
34 They offered the elephants the juice of grapes and mulberries, to arouse them for battle.
35 They distributed the animals among the phalanxes; with each elephant they stationed a thousand men armed with coats of mail, and with brass helmets on their heads; and five hundred picked horsemen were assigned to each beast.
36 These took their position beforehand wherever the animal was; wherever it went, they went with it, and they never left it.
37 On the elephants were wooden towers, strong and covered; they were fastened on each animal by special harness, and on each were four armed men who fought from there, and also its Indian driver.
38 The rest of the cavalry were stationed on either side, on the two flanks of the army, to harass the enemy while being themselves protected by the phalanxes.
39 When the sun shone on the shields of gold and brass, the hills were ablaze with them and gleamed like flaming torches.
40 Now a part of the king’s army was spread out on the high hills, and some troops were on the plain, and they advanced steadily and in good order.
41 All who heard the noise made by their multitude, by the marching of the multitude and the clanking of their arms, trembled, for the army was very large and strong.
42 But Judas and his army advanced to the battle, and six hundred of the king’s army fell.
43 Now Eleazar, called Avaran, saw that one of the animals was equipped with royal armour. It was taller than all the others, and he supposed that the king was on it.
44 So he gave his life to save his people and to win for himself an everlasting name.
45 He courageously ran into the midst of the phalanx to reach it; he killed men right and left, and they parted before him on both sides.
46 He got under the elephant, stabbed it from beneath, and killed it; but it fell to the ground upon him and he died.
47 When the Jews saw the royal might and the fierce attack of the forces, they turned away in flight.
(1 Maccabees 6 32-47)
Book of Maccabees I, Saint Gall, Switzerland, second half of 9th–early 10th century, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Leiden, Codex Perizoni
This codex contains the first book of Maccabees and the fourth book of the Epitoma Rei Militaris by Vegetius.
It was probably started in the Abbey of Saint Gall and finished at the Abbey of Reichenau.
It is famous for its 28 illuminated pages, thought to be early depictions of a historical battle: the incursions of the Magyars in southern Germany.
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