You can support these web-sites by donating:|
or by making your Amazon purchases after clicking a link below:
Kindle Unlimited Membership Plans|
Download 2 free e-books|
from Amazon Audible
13th century resources:|
"Oriental Armour of the Near and Middle East from the Eighth to the Fifteenth Centuries as Shown in Works of Art", by Michael Gorelik, in: Islamic Arms and Armour, ed. Robert Elgood, 1979.
Illustration of a Welshman from a 13th century Latin text of The Laws of Hywel Dda, Peniarth 28
Saints George & Theodore Stratelates on the Freiburgh Leaf, Crusader States, c.1200AD
Saint Theodore Tyro, Byzantine Wooden Icon, Patmos Monastery, Greece, 1200AD
Psalterium B. Elisabeth or Elisabethpsalter, early 13th century, Germany, Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Cividale Ms. CXXXVII
Chartres Cathedral Relief Statues on columns: David and Goliath. France, c.1205.
Automaton in Saljuq Costume, 1206. Topkapi Palace Library MS Ahmet III 3472.
Fresco of Saint Bacchus, Church of Deir Mar Musa al-Habashi, Nabk, Syria, portrayed as a Byzantine cavalryman, 1208-9AD
Seal of Florent de Hainault, Latin Prince of Achaia, Morea, Greece, early 13th century
Soldiers in a fresco of the Betrayal, Church of Saint John Chrisostomos, Arabissos (Karsi Kilise, Suves), Nicaean Byzantine, c.1212 AD
Islamic Sicilian Ivory Casket with Horsemen, Veroli, Italy, c.1200-1225
Painted wood box with the Legend of Guilhem of Orange, Southern France, about 1200–1225
Knights in a Bible, Paris, France, 1200-1225AD. Médiathèque de Troyes, MS 106, f.141v.
Icon of Saint Demetrius, Byzantine, Thessaloniki, 1204 - 1224AD. State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, W-1132
Eneit or Aeneasroman by Heinrich von Veldeke, Germany c.1215
Karlsschrein, Shrine of Charlemagne, Aachen Cathedral, Germany, c.1215
Fresco of knights in Iwein at Schloss Rodenegg (Rodeneck), 1215-1220, Northern Italy
Kitab al-Aghani (Book of Songs), c. 1218-19, probably Mosul
Seal of Karl Bengtsson, Sweden, early 13th century
Seljuk battle plate, early 13th century. Freer Gallery of Art F1943.3.
Irish in Topographia Hibernica and Expugnatio Hibernica (Topography of Ireland & Conquest of Ireland) by Giraldus Cambrensis in National Library of Ireland Ms. 700
Chartres Cathedral window. The story of the Murder of Thomas Becket France, 1215-25
Las Huelgas Apocalypse by Beatus of Liebana, Spain, 1220AD
Arroyo Apocalypse by Beatus of Liebana, Spain, c.1220AD
Syriac Gospel, BL MS. Ad. 7170, c.1220AD
Jacobite-Syrian Lectionary of the Gospels, Monastery of Mar Mattai near Mosul, Iraq, Vat. MS. Syr. 559, c.1220
Na't al-hayawan a medical treatise, Baghdad, c. 1220. British Library, manuscript Or.2784.
Soldiers wearing face-mask helmets in 'Speyerer Evangelista', Germany, c.1220AD. Badische Landesbibliothek, Karlsruhe, Ms Bruchsal 1, f.31v.
Fresco in the Church of Saint-Jacques-des-Guérets. Departure of the knights for the second crusade, France, early 13th century
Road to Calvary on a Tympanum, Larnaca, Cyprus, early 13th? century. Victoria and Albert Museum A.2-1982
An unknown knight at Malvern Abbey, Worcestershire, England
Effigies of Temple Church, London, England, 13th century
Maqamat of al-Hariri, BnF Ms Arabe 6094, 1222-23AD
Chartres Cathedral window w. 7 (Delaport 38) The story of Charlemagne. Franks and Moors of the early 13th century
The Murder of Thomas Becket, Statues, Chartres Cathedral, France, early/mid-13th century.
An Arabic Translation of the Materia Medica of Dioscorides, Iraq, 1224
Book of Fixed Stars by al Sufi, 1224AD, Ceuta, North Africa.
St. Maurice on the Reliquary by Abbot Nantelme, 1225AD. Monastery of Saint Maurice, Agaunum, Valais, Switzerland.
Ayyubid Horse-archer on a bowl, 1st half of the 13th century, Louvre
Maqamat of al-Hariri, St. Petersburg Ms C-23, c. 1225-35
Andalusians in the story of Bayad and Riyad, early 13th century. Bibliotheca Apostolica, Vaticano arabo 368.
English soldiers & hunters in the Rochester Bestiary c.1230
Statues of knights on Wells Cathedral, England, c.1230-40
Illustrations of Ayyubids on the Blacas Ewer, Mosul, 1232 AD
Fragment of a Byzantine Bowl with a Horse and Rider with Mace, 1200–1268AD, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1984.181
Effigy of William Longespée, Earl of Salisbury (d.1226), in Salisbury Cathedral, Wiltshire, England, c.1230-40
A knight in Summa de vitiis et virtutibus by Willelmus Peraldus, British Library Harley MS 3244, England, c. 1236
Maqamat of al-Hariri, BnF Ms Arabe 5847, 1237AD
Maqamat of al-Hariri, BnF Ms Arabe 3929, 2nd quarter of 13th century
A War Elephant in a Bestiary, British Library Harley MS 4751, England, 2nd quarter of the 13th century
Ayyubid Hunters on a Canister, 1238-40, Victoria and Albert Museum 8508-1863
Fresco of the Sleeping Guards at the Sepulchre in Mileševa Monastery, Serbia, c.1240AD.
Scorpio on a pen-box from Mosul, 1230-1250AD. British Museum 1884,0704.85.
Great Seal of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, Wales, b.1194-d.1240
Carvings around the west door of Laurentius Cathedral, Trogir, in Dalmatia, Croatia, by Master Radovan, 1240AD
Tomb effigy of Conrad of Thuringia, Hochmeister of the Teutonic Knights, Sankt Elisabeth Kirche - Marburg, Germany
The Paris Apocalypse, Anglo-Norman England 1240-1250AD. Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS Français 403
Ayyubids on a Ewer, Jazirah, 1246-1247. The Walters.
Relief, Aleppo Gate, 1233-1259 AD, Zangid Jazīrah, in situ, al Hān, Jabal Sinjār.
Histoire d'Outremer by Willam of Tyre, Northern France, British Library Ms. Yates Thompson 12, 1232-1261
Soldiers in Chronica Majora by Matthew Paris, England, 1240-53
Ayyubid inlaid metal basin, 1247-1249AD, Freer Gallery of Art (d'Arenberg Basin)
Illuminations from a Coptic Gospel - Institut Catholique Ms. Copte-Arabe 1
Book of Fixed Stars by al Sufi, 1249-50AD. Alamut?, Iran
First Crusade, Apocalypse by Alexander of Bremen, Germany, 1249-1250AD. Cambridge University Library, MS Mm.5.31.
The Trinity Apocalypse, Anglo-Norman England c.1250AD. Trinity College, Cambridge, MS R.16.2
Hauberk with Integral Mittens & Coif and Armoured Horse in the 'Romance of Alexander' by Thomas of Kent. Trinity O.9.34
Icon of Saints Sergius and Bacchus equiped as Turcopoles, Acre, 13th century. St Catherine’s Monastery, Sinai, Egypt.
Richard and Saladin; Combat Series; Chertsey tiles, England, 1250s
Ayyubid Rider on Bowl, 13th Century, British Museum 1931,0716.1
Ayyubid Horse-archer on a Bowl, North Syrian, 13th century
Maqamat of al-Hariri, Suleymaniye Ms Esad Efendi 2916, 1242-1258
Norwegian Knights on 'The Story of St Mary of Antioch', mid 13th century
Illustrations of Seljuks in Warqa wa Gulshah, Topkapi Palace Library MS Hazine 841
Seljuk Bowl with Rider, 13th century. Freer Gallery F1909.76.
Kitab al-Diryaq (the Book of Antidotes) by Pseudo-Gallen, mid 13th century
A 13th century Kelile ve Dimne, Persian. Topkapi Palace Library, Istanbul, Hazine 363.
Tile with mounted hunt scene, Iran, 13th century AD, Staatliche Museen, Berlin
Bronze Cauldron with Cavalryman, Daghestan, 13th century. State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg.
An Andalusian Horseman on a Silk Hanging, Spain, 13th Century. Museum of Art, Cleveland.
The Morgan Crusader Bible of Louis IX or Maciejowski Bible or The Bible of Shah Abbas, France, mid 13th Century
Simon de Montfort in a mid-13th century window at Chartres Cathedral
Martyrdom of St. Thomas Becket of Canterbury in the Carrow Psalter, England, c.1250
Belt Buckle with Knights from Kígyóspuszta, Hungary, 13th century
Knights and Andalusians in Frescos from the Tower of Hercules, Segovia, Spain, 13th century
Inlaid metal candlestick-base, mid-13th century AD, Ayyubid Jazirah, Coll. of Dr. P. Costa
Alfonso X the Wise with the arms of Castile and Leon, Tumbo A, f.71, Cathedral-Library, Santiago De Compostela, La Coruna, Spain.
Sgraffito-ware bowl showing a horseman in urban Arab costume, Syria?, 13th century, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg
Mural with a scene of the Martyrdom of St Thomas Becket, St Peter's Church, Preston Village, Brighton, England, mid 13th century
Sicilian Ivory Pyxis with Equestrian Falconers, Italy, 13th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Ayyubid Soldier with two sticks on a bowl, Raqqa, Syria, 13th century, Christie's
'King Offa Setting Out on His Expedition' from the Life of Saint Alban by Matthew Paris, England, after 1250AD
The Fould Bucket, Seluk Anatolia, 13th century. State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, ИР-1668
Templar Fresco, Church of San Bevignate, Perugia, Umbria, Central Italy, 13th Century
A cavalry soldier in an icon of Saint George and the boy from Mytilene, Byzantine, 13th Century, British Museum 1984,0601.1
Saracen and a Knight in Combat, Fresco at Tour Ferrande, Pernes-les-Fontaines, Southern France, 13th century AD.
Lustreware bowl of palace scene, Ghazni, 13th century. National Museum Afghanistan.
Fresco of a Knight Fighting Cumans?, Saint Cyriakus Parish Church, Mendig, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, c.1250AD.
Byzantine Icon of St George the Cappadocian, Kastoria, Latin Greece, mid 13th Century. Byzantine and Christian Museum ΒΧΜ 01108.
Bible of St. John of Acre. 1250-1254AD, Paris, Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal, Ms-5211 réserve
Statues of Abram and Melchizedek, Reims Notre-Dame Cathedral, France, after 1251AD
Illustrations of soldiers from Liber additamentorum by Matthew Paris. England, 1250-1259AD. British Library Cotton MS Nero D I.
Detail of a soldier in scale armour, from the Bodleian Apocalypse, England, c. 1250-1260
Ayyubid mounted crossbowman on a glass flask, British Museum 1869,0120.3
Effigy of Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford, Hatfield Broad Oak Church, England, c.1260
The Martyrdom of Thomas Becket, Fresco in the Museo Diocesano from Palazzo dei Trecento, Treviso, Veneto, Italy, c.1185 or c.1260
Fresco of the Centurion at the Crucifixion, Katholikon at the monastery of Panagia Mavriotissa, Kastoria, Greece, c.1260AD
Seal of John II d’Ibelin, Lord of Beirut, AD 1260, from Santa Maria del Teutonici, Venice.
Peasants in combat, Rutland Psalter, England, c.1260AD, British Library Add 62925
The T'oros Roslin (or Sebastia) Gospels of Armenia, 1262. Walters Ms. W.539.
Seal of King-junior Stephen of Eastern Hungary, as a Hungarian Knight, 1263
Histoire ancienne jusqu'à César, Saint-Jean-d'Acre, Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1260-70AD, Dijon - BM ms. 056
Stone carvings on the wall of the Kesava Temple (1268AD), Somanathapura, Mysore, India
Crossing the Red Sea, f.4r, Armenian Patriarchate Library, Jerusalem, MS. No. 2027, Cilician Armenian, 1266AD
Soldiers from the Douce Apocalypse, Anglo-Norman England c. 1265-70. Bodleian Library MS. Douce 180.
Book of Fixed Stars by al Sufi, 1260-80AD, Maragha?, Northwestern Iran, British Library MS. Or.5323.
Brass of Brocardus de Charpignie, a Flemish knight, Larnaca, Cyprus, 1270AD
Murals in the Monastery of Valbuena, Valladolid, Castile and León, Spain, 13th century, c.1270AD
Sleeping Guard wearing a coat-of-plates from a Reliquary at Wienhausen Monastery, Germany, c.1270AD.
Ayyubid or Mamluk inlaid metal bowl, 3rd qtr. 13th century AD, Staatliche Museen, Berlin
Seal of Otakar II, Premysl, King of Bohemia, Duke of Austria and Styria, 1273AD
Statue of Saint Maurice, wearing a coat-of-plates, Magdeburg Cathedral, Germany, 1250-1300AD.
Italian infantry portrayed in Christ Crucified by Guido Da Siena, 1270s
English Knights in St John's College Psalter K.26, c.1270-80
Relief of the Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus, Amiens, France, 1264–88AD
Seal of John de Montfort, lord of Tyre and Toron (1270-1283), Outremer
Grandes Chroniques de Saint-Denis, Paris, France, c.1275-1280AD. Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève, Paris, Ms 782.
Topographia Hibernica (Topography of Ireland) by Giraldus Cambrensis in Bodleian Library Ms. Laud. Misc. 720
Tomb of a knight wearing plastron de fer, in Pershore Abbey, c.1280
Histoire d'Outremer by William of Tyre, Saint-Jean-d'Acre, Saltykov-Shchredin Ms. Fr. fol.v.IV.5, St Petersburg, 1280
Histoire d'Outremer by William of Tyre, Saint-Jean-d'Acre, Lyon - Bibliothèque Municipale - Ms 828, c1280AD
Histoire d'Outremer by William of Tyre, called the Lyon Eracles, Lyon - Bibliothèque de la Ville - Ms P.A. 29, 1280AD
Ayyubid Hunter on an Incense-burner or Hand-warmer, 3rd quarter of 13th Century
The Book of Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices, by Hassan Al-Rammah, c. 1280.
Effigy of Bjorn Finsson, Trondheim Cathedral, Trondheim, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway, 1280
Welsh infantry in Littere Wallie in Chapter House Liber A
Spanish, Andalusians & Moors in Las Cantigas de Santa Maria of Alfonso X, c1284
L'Estoire de Merlin by Robert de Borron. BnF MS Français 95, Northern France, c.1280-1290
Armour of Franks of the Middle Ages by Albert Racinet
Spain - Middle Ages by Albert Racinet
French Crossbowman in Pierpont Morgan Library. Manuscript. M.969, fol. 150r, northeastern France, last quarter of 13th century
Cilician Armenian Lectionary, Matenadaran Collection MS979, 1286AD
Histoire ancienne jusqu'à César, St. Jean d'Acre, Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, c.1286, British Library Add MS 15268
Histoire d'Outremer by William of Tyre, c.1287, Boulogne-sur-mer BM - Ms 142
The 'Roger Histories', or Ancient history until Caesar (Histoire ancienne jusqu'à César), Acre, Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, c.1287
Spanish & Moors in the murals de la conquesta de Mallorca 1285-1290
Spanish soldiers from the army of King James I in a mural from the Tinell Hall at the Palau Reial Major
Byzantine Fresco of Saint George, 1284–1295AD. Alti Kilise (Kirk Dam), Belisirma, Ihlara Valley, Cappadocia, Turkey.
Tournament scenes, fresco in the Palazzo Comunale di San Gimignano, attributed to Azzo di Masetto, Tuscany, Italy, 1288-1292
Histoire d'Outremer, Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1290-1, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana manuscript Plut.61.10
Guillaume de Durford at Santissima Annunziata Church, Florence, c.1289
The Betrayal, Panaghia Chrysafitissa, Laconia, Greece, Byzantine, 1289AD
Netherlandish Knights on the 'Shrine of St. Odilia', 1292AD. Abbey of Mariënlof, Kerniel, Belgium.
Cavalry in 'Histoire d'Outremer' by William of Tyre, 1291-95AD, Genoa, Italy. BnF Français 2631, f.21v.
Mongol Infantrymen in the Moko Shurai Ekotoba (Mongol Invasion Scroll) by Takezaki Suenaga, 1293
Histoire d'Outremer by William of Tyre, Saint-Jean-d'Acre, Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, late 13th century, BnF MS Fr. 9084
Icon of Saint Sergius equiped as a Turcopole. St Catherine’s Monastery, Sinai, late 13th century
Negroes & armoured Mamluk or Ilkhanid cavalry in Kitāb al-mawālīd (Book of nativities), attributed to Abu Maʿar, late 13th century
A man-at-arms on the late 13th century Seal of the Guild of St George of Ferrara, Italy.
Norwegian Effigies of knights, Nidaros Cathedral, Trondheim, late 13th century
'Massacre of the Innocents', Dädesjö Church ceiling paintings, Småland, Sweden, late 13th century
The Florentine Army, c.1260-1325 by Guy Halsall
Gran Conquista de Ultramar, Spain, 1291-1295. Biblioteca Nacional de España 1187
Mural of Saint Mercurius (as a Byzantine or Serbian Soldier) in Ohrid, Macedonia, c.1295AD
Scenes from the Life of King David. Simon Psalter, Monastery of St George, Novgorod, 1290s. Historical Museum, Moscow, Russia.
Histoire d'Outremer by William of Tyre, Picardy, 1295-1300, Walters Art Museum Ms. W.137
Effigy of Robert de Roos (d.1227), in Temple Church, London, England, late 13th/early 14th centuries
Ceiling panel with a knight of the House of Anjou struck down by another knight, c.1300, Spain
Ceiling panel with a fight between a Christian knight and an Andalusia, Spain, c.1300
Sleeping Guards at the Sepulchre, c.1300, Constance Cathedral
St Maurice as a Knight on a Reliquary, Lögon Monastery, Denmark, c.1300
'Book of Fixed Stars', by al Sufi, Cairo, 1300AD. Dãr al-Kutub National Library, Cairo, Manuscript miqãt 390.
Illustrations from the First Small Shahnama, c.1300 showing Ilkhanid Mongols
Mamluk Polo Rider Flask, c.1300AD, Museum für Islamische Kunst der Staatlichen, Berlin
Byzantine Soldiers in Saint John Chrysostom Church, Geraki, Morea, Greece, c.1300AD
A Mongolic Horse Archer on the Surp Haç Church of the Holy Cross, Aktamar Island, Van Province, Turkey
Saint Demetrius of Thessalonica, Byzantine Steatite Icon, 13-14th Century. Kremlin, Moscow
Inlaid bronze bowl, late 13th or early 14th centuries AD, Mamlūk, Victoria and Albert Museum 740-1898
Triptych wing with St Theodore Stratelates, Byzantine, Thessaly, 13th - 14th century AD
Archer Figure, Inland Niger Delta, Mali, Africa, 13th-15th century, Smithsonian
Other Seljuk Turk Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers