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Illustration from

Chronica Majora by Matthew Paris
Matthaei Paris Chronica Maiora I

Atrocities under King John, 1216

Oppressions: On left a man in curious vandyked tunic covered with hammers in red, beats with a thong a stripped man with bound hands. On right three nude men hang to a beam, two by their wrists, but the arms of one are turned back: they have fetters on their ankles: the third hangs head downwards.

Chronica Maiora II, Saint Albans, England, ca. 124053. Folio 48v, MS 16II, Parker Library, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.

Figure 112, p192 The Art of Matthew Paris in the Chronica Majora by Suzanne Lewis, 1987.

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Llywelyn's revolt caused John to postpone his invasion of France, and Philip Augustus, the King of France, was so moved as to contact Llywelyn and propose that they ally against the English king. King John ordered the execution by hanging of his Welsh hostages, the sons of many of Llywelyn's supporters.