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12th century resources:
Marble panel with man and monkey, Ghaznavid, Afghanistan, early 12th century. Linden Museum, Stuttgart, Germany.
Knights & infantry in Archivolt carvings above the Leoni door of the church of San Nicola in Bari, Italy, 1099 to 1106 AD
Italo-Norman carvings around the west door of the church of San Nicola in Bari, Italy, 1099 to 1106 AD
David and Goliath. Bodleian Library MS Barocci 15, f.343r. Byzantine, 1105AD.
Knights & infantry in mosaics, Casale Monferrato, NW Italy, early 12th century
The Silos Beatus Codex by Beatus of Liébana, Spain, 1090-1109. British Library Add. MS 11695
Bible of Saint Stephen Harding, France, c.1110AD. Bibliothèque Municipale de Dijon Ms.14
Knight fighting a Dragon, Moralia in Job, Citeaux, France, 1111AD. Bibliothèque Municipale de Dijon Ms.168
Knights on the Sarcophagus of Doña Sancha, Benedictine Monastery of Santa Cruz, Jaca, Aragon, Spain, 1110-1120AD
The Battle of Ystrad Antarron (Wales), 1116AD by Anthony Clipsom. Miniature Wargames No. 23, April 1985.
Soldiers of Alfonso III of Asturias in the Liber Testamentorum, c.1118AD. Catedral de Oviedo mss. 1. Ca. 1118
Seal of Alexander I of Scotland, early 12th Century
Prudentius' Psychomachia, British Library. Cotton MS Titus D XVI, St Albans, England, 1120AD
The Turin Beatus Codex by Beatus of Liébana, Spain, early 12th century. Biblioteca Nazionale Universitaria di Torino, Sgn I. II. 1
A series of 10 painted windows in the monastery church of St Denis in Paris, France
Moor Slain by a Christian Knight, west lintel frieze, c.1123AD, Angoulême Cathedral, France.
Fresco, 'David beheading Goliath', after 1123AD, Santa Maria de Taüll (Vall de Boí, Alta Ribagorça). Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
Casket with Mythological and Battle Scenes. Northern Europe, 1st ½ 12th Century. Sothebys, 2014, lot 482.
Greek Psalter, Byzantine, 12th century. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Rome, Vat.gr.1927.
'Book of fixed Stars' by al-Sufi, 1125AD, Baghdad, Iraq. Sothebys Lot34
'Book of fixed Stars' by al-Sufi, 1125AD, Artuqid Mardin, Dunaysir, Turkey. Suleymanie Library, Istanbul, Manuscript Fatih 3422
Commentary on the Apocalypse by Haimo, Bishop of Auxerre, Germany, first half of the 12th century
Early 12th Century Frescos in San Severo Church, Bardolino, north-east Italy
Saints Theodore, George and Demetrius on a Steatite, Cherson, Byzantine, early 12th century
Soldiers on Ivory Altar Panels, Sicilian or south Italian, 1100-1150 AD. Museo Diocesano, Salerno.
Seljuk Soldiers on a Bas Relief, Anatolia, 12th century. Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts: Sultanahmet, Turkey
Italian knights on the Modena Archivolt, 1120-1140
Shrine of St. Manchán, of Manghan, c. 1130, Boher church, Co. Offaly, Ireland
The Passion of Saint Edmund, King and Martyr, England, Bury St Edmunds, c.1130
Carvings on the archivolt, 12th century AD, Church of San Domingo in Soria, Castile and León, Spain.
'Book of fixed Stars" by al-Sufi, Mayyafariqin, Southeastern Turkey, 1130-31AD
Soldiers Attack Jerusalem, in the Bury Bible, England, Bury St Edmunds, c.1130-1135
Italian City Militia on the Basilica of San Zeno, Verona, c.1135-38
Lunette showing Saint George from the main portal of the Cathedral of Ferrara, Italy, 12th Century. By Magister Nicholaus
Frankish, Saracen & Byzantine costume in the 'Melisende Psalter', Jerusalem, 1131-43 AD. British Library Egerton 1139.
Exultet Roll from Fondi, Campania, Italy, 1136AD, BnF NAL 710
Spanish Knights & Infantry in the Codex Calixtinus, Galicia, 1135-1139AD
Judas Maccabeus portrayed as a Polish knight in the Plock Bible, second quarter of the 12th century
'Roland', carving, Verona Cathedral, Lombardy, Italy, c.1139
12th century German soldiers in the Admont Bible, Salzburg, c.1140
The 12th century Painted Wooden Ceiling of the Cappella Palatina, Sicily
Privilegium Imperatoris of the Emperor Alfonso VII of León and Castile, Spain, 1142-47AD
King Saul Falls on his Sword, Worms Bible, Germany, c.1148
Panteón de los Reyes de la basílica de San Isidoro de León, Spain, before 1149
Cardena Beatus Codex, 12th Century, Commentary on the Apocalypse by Beatus of Liébana, Spanish, Archaeological Museum, Madrid
Fatimid Infantryman with januwiyah on a Plate, 12th Century. Keir College, London, inv. 151
Fatimid Warrior on Plate Fragment, 12th Century. Victoria & Albert Museum, London
Islamic Sicilian Ivory Casket with Horsemen, 12th Century. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Firenze
A Danish Crusader Knight on the Vejerslev Effigial, 12th century. Danish National Museum
Herod orders the massacre of the innocents, Mosaner Psalter, Germany, mid 12th century. State Museum of Prussia, Berlin
St George Scenes on Capitals, in the Benedictine Abbey Church of Sainte-Marie-Madeleine at Vezelay in Burgundy
Infantryman on the Lintel, Basilique Sainte-Marie-Madeleine à Vézelay, Yonne 89, Bourgogne, France.
Sigurd kills Regin, Hylestad stave church, Norway, 12th century
Knights on a bronze and gilt fragment from a Temple Pyx, German, mid 12th century, Glasgow Museums
Seljuk 12th Century Glass Medallion. Khalili collection GLS 608
Horseman of Raqqa (Faris al-Raqqa), 12th century. National Museum of Damascus, Syria
Seljuk Cavalry on a Bas Relief, 12th century. Art Museum, Seattle, inv. 54.29
Illuminations in the 12th Century Georgian "Jruchi Gospels"
A Fatimid Nobleman or Officer on a lustre-ware plate, 12th Century. Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo, Egypt. Inv. 13477
Seal of the Knights Templar, middle of the 12th century. Centre Historique des Archives Nationales, Paris, France
A Kipchak Balbal, 12th century, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia
Syriac Gospel, 12th century, Ms. Additional 7169, British Library, London
Fresco of a Templar knight at Cressac-sur-Charente, France
A 12th Century Georgian Fresco in Vardzia Monastery
Plates depicting the Byzantine hero, Digenis Akritas, 12th century. Ancient Agora Museum in Athens
Stone relief of hunt. Daghestan, 12th century. State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg
Fatimid plate with mounted hunter, 12th century. Freer Gallery, Smithsonian's Museums of Asian Art. 41.12
Scandinavian Knights on the Baldishol Tapestry, 12th century, Norway. Oslo Museum of Applied Art
Fatimid Manuscript Fragment, Fustat, Egypt, 12th Century. British Museum, 1938,0312,0.1
Fatimid bowl with a hunter on horse, Egypt. Islamic Ceramics Museum in Cairo
The Winchester Psalter or Psalter of Henry of Blois, England, Mid 12th century. British Library Cotton MS Nero C IV
Skylitzes Chronicle, Byzantine Italy, 11th-12th Centuries. Biblioteca Nacional de España manuscript Graecus Vitr. 26-2
Bowl with the Ascension of Alexander the Great, Byzantine, 12th century. State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, W-72
Dish with the Ascension of Alexander the Great, Byzantine, 12th century. State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, W-1501
Cuman (Kipchak) Balbal from Kerch, Crimea, Russia, c.12th century. State Historical Museum, Moscow
Byzantine Ivory Casket with Soldiers, 12th century. Bode Museum DSC03515.
Soldiers in an 'Octateuch'. Byzantine, 12th century. , Codex Vaticanus Pal. Graec. 746, Biblioteca Apostolica, Vatican.
John Chrysostom, Allegory of the fight against anomoeanism, Byzantine, 12th century. Bibliothèque nationale de France, Grec 806.
Tomb of Count William of Flanders, Church of Saint Bertin, Saint Omer, Flanders, c.1130-75
A Detail of Two Men in Combat with Clubs, from Bibliothèque Municipale, Ms. 210, f.4v, Avranches, France, 1154-1158
Chessmen from Uig, Lewis, western isles of Scotland, c.1150-1175
Carved capitals, Parma Cathedral, Emilia-Romagna, Italy, 1150-70
Tristan fights Morhaut, marriage chest, Breton?, 1150-70AD, Cathedral Treasury, Vannes, France
The sleeping soldiers at the Resurrection, Pulpit of William from Cagliari Cathedral, 1159-1162. Pisa, Italy
Spanish soldiers in Biblia Segunde de San Isidoro de Leon, Spain, 1162AD. Real Colegiata de San Isidoro MS. 3, León
The Bobrinski Bucket, Herat, Ghūrid Afghanistān, 1163 AD. Hermitage, St. Petersburg
Seal of Bertrand de Blancafort, Master of the Temple, 1169
Massacre of the Innocents. Capital, Church of Saint Cecilia, Aguilar de Campóo, Palencia, Castile and León, Spain, 12th century
Capitals, Basilique Notre Dame de Saint Nectaire, 1146-1178AD. Saint Nectaire (Puy-de-Dôme), France.
The Crusader’s return. Relief from the Abbey of Belval, perhaps in commemoration of the return of Hugh I of Vaudemont (d.1154)
Illustrations in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath
Soldiers on a Candlestick, San Paolo fuori la Mura, Rome, Italy, c.1170
Crusader in the 'Hunterian Psalter', England, c.1170. Glasgow University Library MS Hunter 229 (U.3.2).
The Winchester Bible, Cathedral Priory of St. Swithin, England, c. 1160–80.
Frescos, Knight Chasing a Saracen and Other Cavalry, Aquileia Basilica Crypt, Italy, c.1160-1180AD.
Rylands Apocalypse by Beatus of Liébana, Castile (Burgos?), Spain, c.1175. John Rylands University Library.
Bronze Doors of Gniezno Cathedral, Poland, c.1175AD. Life and Martyrdom of St. Adalbert (Wojciech).
12th century Spanish soldiers & hunters in the frescos from the Church of San Baudelio de Berlanga, Soria, Castile and León, Spain.
Gilbertus Universalis, Austria, 2nd half of the 12th century. The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.
David and Goliath, Byzantine Psalter, Palestine or Cyprus, 12th century. BL Add MS 40753
Bronze Doors of Trani, Ravello and Monreale Cathedrals, Italy, made by Barisano da Trani.
Carved Relief of Scandinavian Warriors Fighting, Grötligbo Church, late 12th century, Sweden.
Pharoah's Army (Portrayed as Italian Knights) Crossing the Red Sea on the Baptismal Font in the Basilica of San Frediano, Lucca, Italy.
Figures on a Lamp or Perfume-Burner as a Domed Building, Sicily or Southern Italy, late 12th century. Treasury of San Marco Venice.
Carved Column Capitals in the Cloister of Monreale Cathedral near Palermo in Sicily, 1174 to 1182 AD.
Fatimids/Ayyubids in Illustrations from a Coptic Gospel, Damietta, Egypt, 1179-80. BnF Copte 13.
Saracens (Moors) in the Arrest of Saint Aventinus, St Aventin Church, France, 12th century.
Saljuq star with Rustam and the Dragon, late 12th century. Freer Gallery F1911.319.
The Navarra Beatus Codex, late 12th century. BnF NAL 1366.
Centaur, Cormac's Chapel, Cashel, Ireland, late 12th century.
Soldier in lamellar armour. Massacre of the Innocents, Wall-Painting, Bochum-Stiepel Church, Germany, c.1180AD.
Seal of Philippe d'Alsace, 1181AD.
Capital at Estella in Navarre with combat of Farragut & Roland, last third of the 12th century.
Milanese City Militia on the Porta Romana frieze, Italy, late 12th Century.
Seljuk beaker, Kashan, Iran, late 12th century. Freer Gallery F1928.2.
Murder of Becket, Wall Painting in the Santi Giovanni e Paolo, Spoleto, Italy, late 12th-century
Franks in the Hortus Deliciarum, by Herrad of Landsberg, France, 1185.
Personification of Vices & Virtues in the Hortus Deliciarum by Herrad of Landsberg, Hohenburg Abbey, France, 1185.
Seljuk Minai plate by Abu Zaid al-Kashani, 1187AD. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 64.178.2.
La Charité Psalter, Central France, last quarter of the 12th century. British Library Harley MS 2895.
Murder of Thomas Becket, England, last quarter of the 12th century. BL Harley 5102.
Great Canterbury Psalter from Christ Church Abbey, Canterbury, England, 1176-1200AD. BnFrance Latin 8846.
Rolandslied, Song of Roland, Regensburg, Germany, late 12th-century. Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg.
Murder of Thomas Becket on the font in Lyngsjo Church, Scania, southern Sweden, late 12th century.
An early medieval shield from Szczecin, Poland, 12th century.
Frescoes in the Enkleistra (cave church) of St. Neophytos, Paphos, Cyprus, 1182-1196AD.
Lorvão Apocalypse by Beatus of Liébana, Portugal, 1189. Arquivo Nacional Torre do Tombo, Ms 44.
Historiated ‘E’ at the beginning of I Maccabees, Le Puiset Bible, England, late 12th Century. Durham Cathedral Library.
The Murder of Thomas Becket, Wall Painting in Santa Maria de Terrassa, Catalonia, Spain, c1180-1200
Massacre of the Innocents, Ingeborg Psalter, Northern France, c.1195AD. Musée Condé of Chantilly.
Capital with a Moor and a Castilian (Farragut and Roland?), San Julián y Santa Basilisa church, Rebolledo de la Torre, Burgos, Spain.
St John's College, Psalter MS K.30, North Midlands, England, c.1190-1200
Sicilians & Germans in the Liber ad honorem Augusti by Pietro da Eboli, c.1197. Berne Municipal Library MS. 120 II.
Navarre Picture Bible of King Sancho, Pamplona, Spain, 1197AD. "Bibliothèque d'Amiens Métropole MS.108.
Irish in Topographia Hibernica (Topography of Ireland) by Giraldus Cambrensis in BL Ms. Royal 13 B VIII
Kitab al-Diryaq (the Book of Antidotes) by Pseudo-Gallen. Northern Mesopotamia, Ayyubid Sultanate, 1198AD. BnF Arabe 2964.
Crusader knights on a Map of Jerusalem c.1200. Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague, Ms. 76 F 5.
Scandinavian Knights on the Valthjofsstadir Church Door, c. 1200 AD, Iceland.
Pamplona Picture Bible, Pamplona, Navarre, Spain, c.1200AD. UB Augsburg – Oettingen-Wallersteinsche Bibliothek Cod.I.2.4.15
Islamic Bowl with Warrior, Louvre OA 8976, 12th-early 13th century
Ceramic Bowl with Archer, Central Asia, 12th-early 13th century. State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg, АЗ-1507.
Seljuk Mina'i Bowl with mounted archer, 12th-13th century. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 41.165.6.
Saljuq Dish with horseman, late 12th to early 13th century. Freer Gallery F1957.21.
Horseman on a Seljuk Bowl from Rayy, 12th to 13th centuries. Metropolitan Museum of Art 13.93.1
Seljuq Bowl with Turkish horseman, Iran, 12th-13th centuries. 'Giuseppe Tucci' National Museum of Oriental Art.
Seljuk Tile with an army on the march with standards & drums, late 12th-early 13th centuries. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 31.495.
Ayyubid Horse Archer on a Pilgrim Bottle (zamzamiyyah) Fragment, 12th-13th Century. British Museum.
Effigy of Geoffrey de Mandeville, 1st Earl of Essex, 12th-13th century
A wall painting of knights from All Saints Church, Claverley, Shropshire, England, 12th/13th century
Sicilian Ivory Casket with Hunters, Cappella Palatina, Palermo, Italy, 12th or 13th Century
Stone relief of horsemen fighting. Daghestan, 12th-13th century, Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg
Ceramic bottle-stopper from Raqqa, 12th or 13th century AD. Museum für Islamische Kunst.
Harley Roll Y.6. Life of Guthlac, England, 12th-13th century. British Library Harley Roll Y.6.
Fresco of Joshua from Hosios Loukas (St. Lucas) monastery in Boeotia, Greece, 12th-13th century
Artuqid Coin from Diyarbakr with Warrior, late 12th-early 13th centuries
St. Demetrius' quilted armour with lilies, Icon, Lahili, Georgia, 12th-13th centuries.
Armenian wooden door with a royal hunt scene with a leopard behind the king, Cilicia, 12th or 13th century.
Martyrdom of Saints Fuscien, Victoric and Gentien, tomb, Eglise de Sains-en-Amiénois, France, late 12th/early 13th centuries.











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