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United Kingdom Falls Apart
by Karim Van Overmeire of Belgium.

Miniature Wargames 123. August 1993.

In 1815, the Vienna Congress reunited Holland and Belgium in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Fifteen Years later. French agents provoked riots in Brussels. The army was beaten in bitter street fighting. British and French pressure prevented the rebels being smashed by fresh troops.
The London Conference recognised the principal of Belgian independence. But on 2nd August 1831 the Dutch invaded Belgium and easily defeated the Belgians. Only French intervention forced them to retreat . . .

The Historical Background
Vienna and Waterloo
After the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, the European powers were determined not to leave Belgium in French possession. Britain did not like Antwerp — ‘the pistol pointed at the breast of England’ — to be in the hands of any great power. Before the French revolution, Belgium had been part of the Hapsburg empire. But the Austrian emperor was far more interested in southern Europe and gladly parted with the Belgian provinces in return for compensation in Italy.
    Therefore, the powers meeting at the Vienna Congress decided to reunite the former Republic of the United Provinces (Holland) with the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) and Liege, thus creating a buffer state that could prevent French expansion to the north (map 1). The United Kingdom of the Netherlands was thus established for the convenience of the European powers, particularly Britain. William, Prince of Orange-Nassau ascended the throne on 16th March 1815. Three months later, on 18th June, Napoleon was finally defeated at Waterloo, only a few miles south of Brussels.

The United Kingdom of the Netherlands
During the first years, the situation did not appear unsatisfactory. The agricultural and (budding) industrial economy in the South (Belgium) complimented the commercial economy in the North (Holland). Antwerp, downgraded since the separation of the Netherlands in 1648, once more became a major port. The industry in Ghent and in Wallonia brought great prosperity. The Dutch colonies provided new markets for export-products.
    But the king faced some major problems. North and South, which for the last 200 years had developed strikingly contrasting customs, economic interests and religions, had to be assimilated. The North had a 75% Protestant majority, while the south was almost entirely catholic (map 2). The Protestant king William ruled a kingdom with nearly 4 million Catholics and only l.5 million Protestants. The key positions were held by Protestants from the North, who feared to be minorised in the future. There was a tendency to treat the Southerners as second-class citizens. The 2 million Northerners and the 3.4 million Southerners had an equal number of parliamentary representatives. The religious liberty was offensive to the Catholic Church, who wished to prevent any Calvinist inroads in the South. The Fundamental Law gave far reaching powers to the King. The Southerners rejected the constitution of the Fundamental Law, but it was nevertheless promulgated.

Growing Opposition
The French-oriented liberal middle class was further irritated by new taxes, William’s commercial policies and the ruling that all civil servants must use Dutch instead of French in the mainly Dutch-speaking parts of Belgium. This excluded the French-speaking bourgeoisie from government posts in those areas, leaving them to be filled in by Protestant Northerners.
    Conservative Catholic opposition increased as William tried to establish government control over Roman Catholic schools. The state universities established in Ghent and Liege were seen as a threat to the Catholic university of Louvain.
    William however persisted and the opposition was persecuted. In 1828, the Liberals and Catholics in the South, who until then had opposed one another, concluded a union against the King. Anti-Dutch sentiments were increasing, especially in Brussels, where a large number of French revolutionaries had found asylum.

Riots in Brussels
On 25th August 1830, only a few weeks after the July revolution disturbances broke out in Brussels, provoked by French agents distributing alcohol among the proletariate. The authorities were taken by surprise. Police and army retreated without offering resistance. The following day, the middle classes organised a 8,000 strong citizens’ guard to restore law and order. It did not take the bourgeoisie long to realise that by controlling Brussels, the capital of the South, they occupied a powerful position. The Belgian black-gold-red flag began to be seen and the administrative separation of Belgium and Holland was demanded. No one yet contemplated the overthrow of the dynasty. The King hurriedly sent his sons Prince William (the Prince of Orange, well known to all wargamers interested in the Waterloo-campaign) and Prince Frederic to Brussels at the head of a body of 9,000 ill-trained and undisciplined troops and 24 guns. They found the town prepared for resistance and consented to a parley rather than risking a fight. In the meantime, radical elements from Wallonia and France drifted into Brussels and on 20th September, the moderate committee in Brussels was overthrown and a ‘revolutionary government’ was installed. Chaos reigned. Small groups of rebels left Brussels to attack the army encamped outside the city. This provoked a show of force from Prince William. On 23rd September the army entered Brussels in three columns and was soon engaged in bitter street fighting. After four days the army was forced to withdraw. On 4th October the rebels proclaimed the independence of Belgium. The numbers of French and Walloon revolutionaries were now swollen by contingents from all parts of the country. The army, harassed by small groups of rebels, withdrew to Antwerp.

The London Conference
The King still had enough troops left to smash the rebels. But Britain manoeuvred to prevent any action that might stimulate French intervention. An ambassadorial conference was held in London. Its main task was, so the delegates believed, to avert a European war and to uphold the sovereignty of the House of Orange. By December however, rival ambitions, the fear that any other solution such as partition (of Belgium between Holland and France) would bring general war and the thoroughness with which the Belgians defined their break with the North, required them to recognise the principle of Belgian independence. In fact, Britain was glad to see its own creation disappear: the United Kingdom of the Netherlands had proven to be a serious commercial opponent. As for Russia, Prussia and Austria, they were more interested in the events in Poland (cfr. French revolution!) and consented to give up King William’ s legitimate sovereignty. Moreover, the Russian troops which the Czar had promised to William, were fighting the Polish rebels.
    Meanwhile, the Belgians had captured the city of Antwerp, but the Dutch general Chasse maintained his position in the citadel and bombarded the town. The Belgians also laid claim to Zeeuws-Vlaanderen, the whole of Limburg and the whole of Luxemburg and were preparing to invade those territories (map 3). The conference imposed an armistice and declared the dissolution of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. It was decided that Belgium should be an independent and perpetually neutral state, under the guarantee of the European Powers.
    A key issue involved the form of government. A republic was unacceptable and the Belgians had refused any member of the house of Nassau as their King. When the Belgians elected the Duke of Nemours, son of the French King Louis Philippe, several powers protested what they considered as the passing of Belgium to France. The Belgians were ‘advised’ to elect the British candidate, Leopold of Saxe-Coburg. When this Protestant German prince declared himself willing to marry into the family of Louis Philippe, French objections were withdrawn.

The Ten Days Campaign
The London Conference drew up the Treaty of 18 Articles which regulated the separation between Belgium and the North. It was accepted by the Belgians and on 21st July 1831 Leopold arrived in Brussels. On 2nd August however, Dutch troops invaded Belgium. They easily defeated the Belgians in ‘the Ten Days Campaign’.
    Leopold appealed to France, and by consent of the Conference, a French army under Marshal Etienne Gerard intervened to restore the position. The Dutch retreated before him without engaging in action.

Eighteen or Twenty-Four Articles?
The apparent inability of the Belgians to defend themselves, weakened their case and the result was a new set of 24 articles proclaimed by the London Conference. These were more favourable to the Dutch than the previous set.
    William still refused to sign, although France and Great Britain blockaded the Dutch ports and a French army captured the citadel of Antwerp on 23rd December 1832. Not until April of 1839 were the definitive treaties signed.
    The Walloon section of Luxembourg — about 60 percent of the duchy — was allotted to Belgium. The rest became a grand duchy under the sovereignty of William. East of the Meuse Limburg and Maastricht remained in Dutch possession.
    In return, Belgium was recognised as an ‘independent and perpetually neutral state under the guarantee of the powers’ . . . This neutrality-clause was unique in European diplomatic history up until that time and was to be the dominating influence on the country’ s foreign policy for the following 80 years. In 1914, Britain declared war on Germany after the German violation of Belgian neutrality.
    The North was frustrated and turned away from European politics and Belgium. In the following decennia and even until today, the North has shown no interest in the struggle of the Dutch-peaking majority in Belgium against the francophile government in Brussels.

Wargaming the Belgian War of Independence
There is no fundamental difference with Napoleonic skirmish-scenarios. In fact, many of the Dutch and Belgian soldiers in 1831 were veterans of the Napoleonic wars. Most of the fighting in 1830 and 1831 was skirmishing and anyone should feel free to write a scenario. I have written some, based on reports by Dutch soldiers.

1. The Fighting in Brussels
(23rd-27th September 1330)

Brussels then consisted of a rich upper part (with the Royal Palace and the park) and a proletarian and revolutionary downtown.
    The army, commanded by Prince Frederic, was 9,000 men (most Belgians) and 24 guns strong. Morale and discipline were low. The troops advanced in three columns. In most of the streets there were barricades, manned by some 15,000 rebels of which the 8,000 citizens’ guard formed the nucleus.
    Johannes van Oostendorp, fusilier in the 10th line, reports confused and bitter street-fighting. He saw women offering drink to the soldiers and firing pistols at them when they approached. The advancing columns were stopped by a hail of bullets and stones. Furniture was hurled at them from the rooftops.
    The army took many prisoners. Van Oostendorp tells how a group of 8 prisoners were escorted to the army headquarters in Vilvoorde by 16 soldiers.
    By the evening of 23rd September, the army was in control of most of the upper part of the town. In the following days, the fighting continued. Curiously, the army’ s cavalry stationed outside Brussels made no effort to stop rebels from other cities joining in.

2. More Skirmishing
On 27th September, the army withdrew to Antwerp. Most of the Belgians in the army deserted. The remains of the army’ s forces were harassed by small groups of rebels. In Mechelen, the soldiers of the garrison were ordered to patrol in large groups in order to prevent individual soldiers from being lynched. In almost every city in the South, the garrisons were expelled after some skirmishing. One week after the defeat of the army in Brussels, only Antwerp and Maastricht remained under army control.

3. Antwerp
Van Oostendorp reports how the army was driven out of the city and was forced to retire to the citadel. ‘Our detachment was split in sections of six to eight men. Each section held a house and had orders to open fire on anything that moved. Night fell. We did not know where we were. We forced the civilians in our house to provide us with cigars and beer.’ ‘We heard firing. The rebels shouted that they were going to kill us. We fired in the direction of the voices. Our group was reinforced by four corporals and two privates.’

Dutch troops about to storm Belgian rebels behind their improvised Barricades. Photo by Richard Ellis.

    ‘One of our men was wounded and cried so loudly that we decided to kill him because he attracted enemy fire. We drew straws in order to decide who should do the job.’
    ‘The Belgians brought up a gun. We were reinforced by an officer and two sappers, who brought on fresh ammunition, when the Belgians stormed our position, we retreated.’
    ‘In the streets, we took heavy fire. The officer ordered us to stand, giving a volley to keep the Belgians at a distance. Another of our men was wounded and we had to leave him behind." ‘Eventually, only five men could save themselves and join the rest of the battalion. Then, Belgians dressed as monks approached and attacked an officer. A bayonet-charge drove the ‘monks’ off.’
    The infantry withdrew into the Citadel. General Chasse, commander of the Citadel, ordered the artillery and the flotilla on the Scheldt to open fire on the city.
    On 5th August. 800 men made a sortie and took three Belgian trenches. They captured at least 29 Belgian guns. A Belgian counter-attack was foiled by artillery fire from the Citadel. Eventually, the Dutch troops withdrew.
    The armistice imposed by the London Conference put an end to all fighting. The citadel of Antwerp, the city of Maastricht and the province of Luxemburg remained loyal.

4. Skirmishing in the Ten Days Campaign
In the Ten Days Campaign, the Dutch divisions all had an Advanced Guard consisting of some line infantry, a detachment of Jaeger-volunteers (most of them were university students) and some light cavalry. During the campaign, these advanced guards often had to clear small groups of Belgians out of villages and woods. The arrival of a section of Dutch horse artillery usually settled the fight.

The Ten Days Campaign (map 4)
A Call to Arms allowed King William to rebuild his army in the winter of 1830-1831. The unreliable Belgian units, reduced by desertion to skeleton-strength were disbanded. The Dutch units were reinforced by ‘Schutterijen’ (militia) and volunteer jaeger units, mostly composed of university students.
    Because there was a fair chance that the conflict would be resolved by the London Conference, the soldiers were not sure that their intensive training would be followed up by action. This uncertainty led to boredom. One of the many songs of the Dutch soldiers went as follows:

‘Maar eenmaal komt de dag
Waarop wij allen wachten
Dan gaan we naar de grens
Om Belgen af te slachten...’

‘But once the day will come
which we’ re all waiting for
Then we will cross the border
To slaughter the Belgians . . .’

    Patriotism in the North was increased by the ‘glorious’ incident in which captain Van Speyk chose to blow up his gunboat, his crew and himself rather than surrender his ship to the Belgians. But not everyone was so enthusiastic. Van Oostendorp, then part of the Antwerp citadel garrison, remarks: ‘Some of us did not want to serve under such an officer!’
    On 2nd August, two weeks after the Belgian King Leopold arrived in Brussels, the Dutch field army crossed the border and headed for the Belgian capital. The precise aims of the campaign are still not clear. Was it an attempt to reconquer the South? It was unrealistic to believe that France would tolerate a Belgian defeat. It is most likely that King William only wanted a decisive victory to reinforce his position at the London Conference.

Fervent Belgian townsfolk ready to sell themselves for their country in the face of Dutch opposition. Photo by Richard Ellis.

Dutch Field Army Order of Battle
CiC : Prince William
Assistant CiC ; Prince Frederic
Chief of Staff: Constant de Rebecque (an 80 years old Swiss who had served under Napoleon)
The lst Division (9,600 strong) was concentrated in Breda and Tilburg. Commander: Lt-General baron VAN GEEN, one of the few southerners in the army.
The 2nd Division (8,750) advanced from the military camp in Rijen. The Commander was the reactionary Duke Bernard of SAXE-WEIMAR, called ‘Monseigneur’ by his friend and ‘the Saxon oger’ by his enemies.
The 3rd Division (7,250) was based in Eindhoven. Commander: Lt-General Adrianus Frans MEYER.
The Reserve Division consisted of 5,000 militia-men and was based north of Eindhoven. The commander was Lt-Gen. Giisbertus Martinus CORT-HEYLIGERS. It was clearly the weakest of the four divisions.
    Each division was composed of two brigades. There was also an independent heavy cavalry brigade.
    Also important were the garrisons in the Antwerp citadel (5,800 men under general Chasse) and in Maastricht (2,000 men, general Dibbetz)

The Belgians
There were two main Belgian armies. The 15,000 strong ‘Armee de l’Escaut’ was concentrated in the region of Antwerp. General de division DE TIECKEN DE TERHOVE was in command. The army was divided into five brigades.
    The 10.000 strong ‘Armee de la Meuse’ was commanded by General Nicolas Joseph DAINE. His army was composed of three infantry-brigades and one artillery-brigade, 18 guns strong. Daine was 50 years old, an adventurer and a veteran of the Russian and German campaigns of Napoleon.
    There were also some smaller Belgian forces;
    General Niellon with 1,000 men and two guns some l0 miles east of Antwerp and Colonel Wuesten with 3.000 men to face the Maastricht garrison.
    The Belgian army was badly trained and ill-armed. It was an amalgamate of semi-regular units and Belgian and French Free-Corps. One of these volunteer battalions consisted of 200 officers and 400 men. Most of the officers were incompetent. Others were international adventurers with a doubtful loyalty to the Belgian cause. The artillery was weak; there were 11 batteries which had, combined, only 26 pieces. But the cavalry seems to have been excellent.
    The Belgians, overconfident following their victories in September 1830, clearly underestimated the Dutch army. The overall commander was minister of war baron de Fally, a man with no knowledge of military operations. Furthermore, the Belgians expected a Dutch attack in the direction of Antwerp, and not of Brussels.

Fig l : Citizen’s Guard, Brussels, 1830. Dark blue coat with Belgian black-gold-red cockade. White bells. Black civil hat with identification plate in paper (lb): ‘Garde bourgeoise. Ixelles. Fauboug de Namur’ . Fig 2 : Belgian revolutionary volunteer, 1830. Dark blue or grey coat. Brown trousers. White belts. Small Black fur cap with Belgian cockade. (2b: Fur cap of the Luxembourg volunteers: black with large metal ‘L’ and ‘X’ ). Fig 3 : French fusilier, 1831. Dark blue coat. Red trousers. White belts.
Fig 4 : Dutch grenadier, Brussels, 1830. Dark blue greatcoat. Dark blue trousers. Black bearskin with brass plate. White Belts.
Fig 5 : Dutch jaeger, 1830-31 . Dank green coat. Grey trousers. Black belts. Black shako with white shako-cords.
Fig 6: Dutch line infantry, 1830-31. Dark blue coat. Dark blue trousers. White belts.

Military Operations During the Ten Days Campaign
On 2nd August, the Dutch attacked over a broad front. The major aim was to take Brussels, but there were feint attacks in the direction of Antwerp and Maastricht. On the first day, the division of Saxe-Weimar drove back general Niellon’s Belgians. Due to extremely hot weather, bad roads and the fact that almost every wood and every village had to be cleared of small groups of Belgians, the Dutch army advanced very slowly. Under the burning sun, the Dutch divisions edged southwards. The nights were unusually cold and soon, the weakest soldiers fell sick. On 4th August, van Geen’s division was threatening Antwerp. The Belgian Army of the Scheldt, in an attempt to protect Antwerp, left the roads to Brussels open. Dutch soldiers discovered weapon supplies in the churches of several villages. The next day, the advanced guard of the 3rd division — some 200 volunteer jaegers and Hussars — surprised the 900 strong garrison of Beringen. These Belgian troops hadn’t even realised that the fighting had started again!
    In Antwerp the renewal of hostilities was delayed because the local armistice foresaw an advanced notice of 72 hours. Chasse intended to launch an attack and capture the city, but on 6th August, he received a message from the French threatening to intervene if the Dutch were to move against Antwerp. The letter caused Chasse to call off his attack and renew the armistice.
On 6th August, the three frontline divisions had a day of rest. Near Houthalen, Cort Heyligers’ 5,000 second line troops were attacked by the entire Belgian Armee de la Meuse and forced back. But Daine hesitated and a Dutch counter-attack brought both forces back to their starting positions. In the Belgian army, there were rumours that Daine was a traitor who intended to defect to the Dutch. The next day. Daine was ordered to march to Diest and join forces with the Army of the Scheldt. Near Hasselt, he was attacked by Meyer’s 3rd division. Meyer believed he faced only the Belgian rear—guard and his attack was too weak to be successful. A Belgian counter-attack was foiled and the Dutch advanced once again, driving the Belgians back at bayonet-point. But in the evening, Meyer retreated. He had lost 22 men killed, 126 wounded and 35 missing.
    On 8th August, the Dutch planned to trap Daine in Hasseit by encircling him with the divisions of Saxe Weimar (2nd), Meyer (3rd) and Cort-Heyligers (reserve).
    Kikkert. a volunteer Jaeger, reports:
    ‘We attacked the village in closed column. The Belgians had positioned two guns against us. But when we arrived, we found a lot of our people and most of the Belgians dead. We could see quite clearly that there had been bayonet-fighting and that our men had done well: for every man of ours, three Belgians lay dead. The Belgians retreated to Curingen.’
    The Belgians were beaten, but the advance of Saxe-Weimar was delayed and the 2nd brigade of the 3rd division got lost. This allowed Daine to retreat in the direction of Liege. The Dutch Major-general Boreel attacked the retreating Belgians with a squadron of cuirassiers and some horse artillery. He slaughtered the rear-guard, captured seven guns and took 387 prisoners. The Belgian Army of the Meuse disintegrated and fled to Liege. Daine was accused of treason and one of his NCOs even tried to murder him.
    General Dibbetz, commander of the Dutch garrison in Maastricht, was ordered to take Tongeren. The general acted immediately: a few hours later, he captured Tongeren without a fight.
    On 9th August, the Dutch army took another day of rest. The victory had clearly surprised the Dutch staff. Only after a heavy discussion between Prince William and his brother Frederic was the decision taken to march on Louvain, defeat the Belgian Army of the Scheldt that had taken up position there and then march upon Brussels. In the meantime, the Belgian king Leopold had joined the Army of the Scheldt. He had called for French support. On 9th August, a 45,000 strong French army under marechal Gerard entered Belgium.
    On the morning of 11th August, the Dutch army attacked the Army of the Scheldt near Louvain. The Belgians had to give ground, but in the afternoon Prince William received a message informing him of the French intervention. His father ordered him to stop the advance. An armistice was concluded. The defeated Belgian army had to leave Louvain, so that the Dutch could victoriously march through the city before turning back to the north.... On 20th August, all Dutch troops were back in their starting positions. The Dutch losses (dead, wounded, missing) during the Campaign were 1,108 (incl. 51 officers), in other words: 3% of the army. The Belgian losses were probably about 2,500.

Fig 7 : Dutch cap. Blue with red headband for line infantry, green with yellow for jaegers.
Fig 8 : Belgian shako, 4th: line,1831. Note the French influence.
Fig 9: Belgian shako, 3rd bn. Tirailleurs Francs, 1831. Black with ‘3’ in gold and drooping white horsehair plume.

Free Kriegspiel
The 1830 and 1831 fighting offers a lot of interesting scenarios for the wargamer. In the ‘Red Barons’ wargaming-club in Ghent, we played the Ten Days Campaign as a FREE KRIEGSPIEL, using Paddy Griffith’ s excellent ‘Napoleonic Wargaming for Fun’. Two Belgian generals (Tiecken and Daine] faced five Dutch generals (van Geen, Saxe-Weimar, Meyer, Cort-Heyligers and Chasse). Although all players were Flemish and thus Dutch-speaking, they were forbidden to use their mother-tongue. This rule reflected the international composition of both the Dutch and Belgian staff.
    The inactivity of the Belgians led to complete disaster. Tieckens 15,000 Belgians were blocked in Antwerp by Chasse’s garrison and van Geen’s division. Daine’s Army of the Meuse spent much time rebuf?ng a feint attack by the 3,000 strong Maastricht garrison. This left only general Niellon’s 2,000 Belgians to hold the line between Antwerp and Maastricht. Nielion was overrun by the divisions of Saxe-weimar and Meyer. Forced marching brought the Dutch to Brussels on 6th August, before the French could intervene.

Battles at Divisional Level
Most of the Napoleonic wargame rules aim at battles between division-sized forces, although such battles were rare in the Napoleonic period. The Ten Days Campaign allows you to refight ‘suitable’ battles such as those near Hasselt (6th, 7th, 8th August) and the battle at Louvain (11th August). The many hills, hedges, woods and broken ground allowed the superior skirmishing-capacities of the well-trained Dutch troops to be a dominant factor in the fighting.

Siege of Antwerp
In November 1832, the French marechal Gerard arrived with 65,000 troops and 85 guns and laid siege to the citadel of Antwerp. The citadel was still held by general Chasse with a garrison of 4,500 troops and 95 guns. On 23rd December, after a 19 day bombardment, Chasse surrendered. The Dutch flotilla on the Scheldt could not escape: the ships were burnt and the crews joined the garrison as prisoners of war. The capitulation was followed by a fraternisation between the French and Dutch soldiers.

A European War?
What if the Russian troops promised to king William had not been needed in Poland? Russia would Surely have intervened in favour of the Dutch. Eventually, this could have led to a European war between Russia supported by Prussia and possibly Austria) and France (supported by Britain). This gives you an opportunity to lead your Russian and Prussian columns against... the British thin red line!

Uniforms? No Problem!
I assume that few Wargamers are prepared to paint two armies which can only be used in the 1830-1831 Belgian War of Independence. After all, this is only a bizarre little war.
    The 1815 Dutch-Belgian you are keeping in your shoeboxes make splendid Dutch troops. At last an opportunity to let them fight other battles than Ouatre Bras and Waterloo! In some illustrations, the Dutch troops are shown carrying orange flags with regimental insignia. In both the skirmishes of 1830 and the Ten Days Campaign 1831, greatcoats and shako-covers were often worn, so in fact all Napoleonic troops dressed thus could do.
    The Belgians wore a variety of uniforms. usually long blue or grey coats, not unlike the Prussian Landwehr. By painting a standard bearer with a Belgian tricolore (black-gold-red), you could transform your Prussian Landwehr battalions and Russians in great-coats into Belgian volunteers at little or no cost at all.
    The French infantry wore a blue single-breasted jacket with red or yellow epaulettes for grenadiers and voltigeurs respectively. Since 1829, all infantry wore red trousers. Flags were tricolours surmounted by the Gallic Cock.

I would like to thank Henk Vervaeke and his wife Brenda for correcting this text and the members of the ‘Red Barons’ for participating in the Free Kriegspiel.

Van Oostendorp, Johannes, ‘Een fuselier in de Belgische opstand’. Aantekeningen over de jaren 1830-1832. Nijhoff, Den Haag, 1980, 108 pp.
Kikkert. J.G.. ‘Bericht van de 10daagse veldtocht. Belgie en Noord-Brabant in de frontlijn’. A. Donker, Rotterdam, 1980. 196 pp.
Thornburn, W.A., ‘French Army Regiments and Uniforms from the Revolution to 1870’. Arms and Armour Press, London, 1976, 84 pp.
Schulten. C.M. en Smits. F.J.H.Th., ‘Grenadiers en Jagers in Nederland’. Staatsuitgeverij, 's Gravenhage, 1980, 160 pp.

See also Netherlands Infantry Uniforms 1813 to 1831
19th Century Illustrations of Costume and Soldiers