Carvings around the west door of the church of San Nicola in Bari, Italy, 1099 to 1106 AD

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Referenced as Fig. 50 in "The Monreale Capitals And The Military Equipment Of Later Norman Sicily" by David Nicolle in Gladius, Vol 15 (1980): pp87-103
p.101: Another such «infidel» horseman does, however, carry an ordinary round-topped kite-shaped shield, of a type common in other sources from this region (Figs. 40-42 and 50).
p.101: At this time and in this area lightly protected sword-armed infantry normally carried a smaller, hand-held rather than arm-supported, shield commonly referred to as a buckler (Figs. 10, 15, 50 and Foto III)





Referenced as figure 576 in The military technology of classical Islam by D. Nicolle
576. Relief, Pharoah's Army (?), early 12th century AD, Italo-Norman, in situ, west front, Church of San Nicola, Bari.
Vol. 1, pp.171-2: Other evidence indicates that scale hauberks were widely used in the so-called Dark Ages, both within the world of Islam (Figs. 115, 122, 123, 189, 210, 258, 292, 305, 340, 384, 385, 416, 498, 515, 545, 548, 576, 577, 580, 581, 597, 603, 604C, 606, 609 and 659) and beyond (Figs. 196, 213, 229, 239, 241, 413, 417, 418, 446, 557, 586, 587, 609B and 634). Such armours were clearly more plentiful than horses in the first Muslim armies in Arabia.24 They may even have predominated in Europe until the 8th century.25 Though later becoming rarer in the west, scale armour was known, particularly in southern Europe26 and in Spain,27 where it seems to have been used largely in siege warfare.

24. Levy, The Social Structure of Islam, p. 407.
25. Norman, op. cit., p. 35; Salin and France-Lanord, op. cit., pp. 95 and 127; Arwidsson, "Armour of the Vendel Period, " p. 31.
26. Clair, op. cit., pp. 23-24; Norman, op. cit., p. 216; M. Terenzi, "Armour on a Fresco-at Spoleto, " Journal of the Arms and Armour Society, VIII (1974), p. 96.
27. Gabrieli, "Gli Arabi in Spagna e in Italia," loc, cit.



See also Knights & infantry in Archivolt carvings above the Leoni door of the church of San Nicola in Bari, 1099 to 1106 AD
Other 12th Century Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers
Other Italian Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers